Dietary plan according to bmi
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We studied the effect of different levels of dietary sodium, in conjunction with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DASH diet, which is rich in vegetables, fruits, and low-fat dairy products, dietary plan according to bmi persons with and in those without hypertension. Full Text of Background A total of participants were randomly assigned to eat either a control diet typical of intake in the United States dietary plan according to bmi the DASH diet.
Within the assigned diet, participants ate foods with high, intermediate, and low levels of sodium for 30 consecutive days each, in random order. Full Text of Methods Reducing the sodium intake from the high to the intermediate level reduced the systolic blood pressure dietary plan according to bmi 2. Reducing the sodium intake from the intermediate to the low level caused additional reductions of 4. The effects of sodium were observed in participants with and in those without hypertension, blacks and those of other races, and women and men.
The DASH diet was associated with a significantly lower systolic blood pressure at each sodium level; and the difference was greater with high sodium levels than with low ones. As compared with the control diet with a high sodium level, the DASH diet with a low sodium level led to a mean systolic blood pressure that was 7.
Full Text of Results The reduction of sodium intake to levels below the current recommendation of mmol per day and the DASH diet both lower blood pressure substantially, with greater effects in dietary plan according to bmi than singly. Long-term health benefits will depend on the ability of people to make long-lasting dietary changes and the increased availability of lower-sodium foods.
Full Text of Discussion Does reducing the level of sodium from the average intake in the United States approximately mmol per day, how to lose thigh and tummy fat fast is equivalent to 3. We hypothesized that it would, on the basis of both the blood-pressure levels in populations with an average consumption of less than 60 mmol of sodium per day 9 and data from incompletely controlled or small-scale 15 clinical trials.
Does the DASH diet lower the blood pressure beyond the level achievable by simply reducing sodium intake? What is the combined effect of the DASH diet and reduced sodium intake? The extent to which the reduction of the sodium level, in the context of a typical United States diet and in combination with the DASH diet, dietary plan according to bmi blood pressure in people without hypertension is a much-debated issue critical to the prevention of hypertension.
The design of the trial, which was conducted from September through Novemberhas been described in detail elsewhere. The daily sodium intake was proportionate to the total energy requirements of individual participants, so that larger or very active persons would receive more food and therefore more sodium than smaller or less active persons. The two diets were a control diet 4 typical of what many people in the United States eat, and the DASH diet, which emphasizes fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods; includes whole grains, poultry, fish, and nuts; and contains smaller amounts of red meat, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages than the typical diet in the United States.
Specific dietary patterns were composed to achieve the high, intermediate, and low levels of sodium in both the control and the DASH diets. Participants were provided with all of their food, including snacks and cooked meals. Taste tests were performed to ensure that the diets were palatable. During a two-week run-in period, eligible persons ate the high-sodium control diet. Participants were then randomly assigned to follow one of the two diets according to a parallel-group design.
They ate their assigned diet at each of the three sodium levels for 30 consecutive days in random order in a crossover design. Each participant's energy intake was adjusted to ensure that his or her weight remained constant throughout the study. Each of four clinical centers conducted the trial in four or five cohorts of participants. The primary outcome was systolic blood pressure at the end of each day period of dietary intervention, and the secondary outcome was diastolic blood pressure.
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